When a person is diagnosed with prostate cancer the process of each level call staging of prostate cancer.
The staging of prostate cancer refers to the marking of the cancer from I to IV.
That is to determine how far the cancer cell has spread.
TNM Staging of Prostate Cancer
The international system used to classify cancer call TNM staging, which refers to the tumor, node, and metastases.
Staging of prostate cancer correctly is very essential as the stage of the disease determines the treatment.
Once the prostate cancer has been diagnose the physician will establish the progress of the tumor and evaluate the staging level.
Stage Process of The Prostate Cancer
1- In the first staging of prostate cancer PSA tests and the biopsy would have identified the existence of the cancer.
2- The second staging of prostate cancer reveals that the cancer affects the organs of the prostate to some extent.
3- The third staging of prostate cancer will determine that the whole prostate is compassionate as they are adjoining tissues or the bladder.
4- The fourth staging of prostate cancer reveals the extent to which the cancer would have spread to other parts of the body.
In TNM staging of prostate cancer the oncologist will look at the size of the tumor, the involvement of the lymph node, and the cancer’s metastasis.
I. Stage T1 will confirm by biopsy the existence of the cancer though it cannot be seen or felt.
Further subdivisions mean that the percentage of cancer in the prostate will be identify.
II. Stage T2 will determine that either one or both sides of the prostate have been affected but that it is so far restricted only to the prostate.
III. Stage T3 will identify that the cancer has in fact spread to other parts beyond the prostate and the oncologist can determine if the seminal glands have been affected or not.
IV. In stage T4 the tumors would have spread to the bladder or the rectum.
V. Stage N refers to the spread or not of the cancer to the lymph nodes.
VI. In the stage M the tumor would have gone beyond to other parts of the body such as in the pelvic area or the bone.
TNM system can also identify a cancer as being recurrent perhaps after remission or when all visible tumors have been destroyed.
The Jewett-Whitmore system is also sometimes used to stage prostate cancer in the United States.
Oncologists also use the Gleason Score to stage prostate cancer criteria.
Radical Prostatectomy Curing Your Cancer through Surgery
A radical prostatectomy is the surgical treatment option for patients suffering for prostate cancer.
This form of treatment is usually used in younger patients where there is good potential for curing the disease.
At such staging of prostate cancer is when the cancer is contained entirely within the prostate, or has yet to spread far into the surrounding tissues or lymph nodes an otherwise healthy patient’s best option may be the radical prostatectomy.
Form of treatment has yielded more positive results than normal radiation treatments.
Older patients (seventy years of age and up) are rarely considered good candidates for a radical prostatectomy due to the increased risks stemming from the surgical procedure.
The operation can be done through either a small incision in the abdomen or a small incision in the area between the scrotum and the rectum
Latter is often chosen to minimize the visibility of a scar.
Surgeon will remove the entire prostate and the surrounding seminal vesicles before reconnecting the bladder to the urethra to allow for normal urination.
That procedure generally takes just a few hours, but the patients may need to remain in the hospital for just under a week.
Most obvious positive aspect of the radical prostatectomy is the fact that all of the cancer is removed from the body, hopefully allowing the patient to be cancer free and no other staging of prostate cancer.
There is however some potential negatives associated with the procedure.
Negative side effect concerning men most is the potential for impotence.
During surgery, while trying to ensure that all of the cancer is in fact being removed, there is potential for damage to the nerves responsible for controlling erections.
Thereby resulting in impotency or erectile dysfunction.
Other side effects commonly associated with radical prostatectomy are:
Urinary incontinence which often is only temporary but may take some time (even months or years in some instances) to go away, and infertility.
Doctors are now performing two variations of the procedure a nerve sparing and a non-nerve sparing.
The non-nerve sparing variation is the traditional and more aggressive form of the procedure.
During this staging of prostate cancer the surgeon will remove not only the prostate and seminal vesicles but much of the surrounding tissue in an attempt to be certain that all of the cancer is removed.
In the nerve sparing for of the radical prostatectomy;
The surgeon cuts much closer to the prostate in an attempt to salvage the sensitive nerves necessary for achieving erection.
During this staging of prostate cancer operation the patient is still subject to erectile dysfunction.
Another big advantage of the radical prostatectomy comes into play if there is recurrence, in the event that the cancer comes back.
Radiation treatment can be used as a secondary treatment in an attempt to rid the body of cancerous cells again.
If radiation is used first and fails, an attempt at surgery or salvage prostatectomy is a much more difficult procedure to perform.
Some surgeons are at present working on a laparoscopic version of the surgery and with technological advancements being made everyday.
There may come a time in the future where this procedure is not only more effective making the patients who undergo it cancer free, but much less likely to cause the negative side effects that have become associated with it.
A Vaccine for Prostate Cancer May Be on the Horizon
At this staging of prostate cancer there is no cure for prostate cancer and the treatments available have been known to have some extreme and unwanted side effects.
Chemotherapy and radiation can cause serious bouts of nausea and vomiting, so much so that some patients won’t even consider them an option.
Radical prostatectomy can result in impotence from the removal of tissues surrounding the prostate gland.
Cryotherapy can also result in impotence or erectile dysfunction from damage done to the nerve bundles responsible for the control and ability to maintain an erection.
Thousands and thousands of men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer every year.
For those lucky enough to undergo a successful form of treatment twenty percent of those men are at a high risk for recurrence.
Based upon sheer statistics the outlook can appear pretty grim.
However, hope could be on the way in the not too distant future and not just for those men suffering from prostate cancer, but several other forms of cancer as well.
Such a vaccine is has been undergoing some phases of clinical testing and the results thus far seem pretty promising.
Main idea of the Prostate Vaccine
Is not to cure cancer per say, but to slow its growth to the point where the patient can live with it, where it’s not an imminent threat.
The vaccine is designed to stimulate the patients own immune system to fight the cancer and slow the growth of the tumor or tumors.
This vaccine would be a great treatment option for those who have undergone other treatments without the intended success.
Cancer will be the specific target of the vaccine at this staging of prostate cancer and will result in only those cells being destroyed.
What this means for the patients is that there will be no side effects.
There would be no damage to the healthy areas surrounding the tumor because only the tumor would be attacked.
Therefore, no impotence, no nausea, no erectile dysfunction, and no urinary incontinence.
The only damage the patient will suffer is the damage the cancer has already done, this form of treatment would do nothing but help.
This could be a miracle not only for prostate cancer sufferers, but because the specific antigen targeted by this treatment telomerase, is present in a wide variety of different cancers.
If the vaccine proves to be as effective as researchers hope, this could lead to a universal cancer vaccine that could be used to treat malignant tumors of all kinds.
Though much research still needs to be performed, subjects in clinical studies have shown very positive effects from this treatment.
Moreover, usage of the vaccine results in the immune systems of men studied showed increased immune response.
Researchers also Linked the Vaccination to a Reduction Staging of Prostate Cancer in Tumor Cells
As well as participants in the study also showed a slow down in the increase of PSA levels in the blood (PSA level indicates the presence of cancerous cells in the bloodstream).
With proper government funding followed by father phases of clinical studies and research, a universal vaccine for cancer is not only within reach but closer than anyone imagined.
Can Prostate Cancer Recur?
Depending on the staging of prostate cancer , the answer to this question is Yes the cancer can recur.
This is unfortunate, especially as it has been a difficult time for you going through the diagnosis and the treatment.
You may still be on drugs as part of the treatment based on the staging of prostate cancer.
There is a risk that all the tumors were not destroyed during the therapy and so the cancerous cells are still there.
A doctor should have warned you that the chances of prostate cancer recurring are high and therefore you should be watchful and treat the symptoms quickly.
If the cancer has not spread beyond the prostate then it can be cured.
However, it cannot be determined with certainty as to how far the cancer has spread to other parts of the body and whether all the cells have been eliminated.
Therefore, it should generally be a process of monitoring even after you finish with the treatment and it seems that the cancer has been removed.
If you have had surgery to remove the prostate gland then the doctor will check it to glean information as to whether the cancer can return.
Doctor can do by examining how far the cancer has spread and what is the staging of prostate cancer.
You should take a prostate specific antigen (PSA) test that will determine if the tumors still exist in your body.
The amount of PSA will be higher in the blood if cancer is present.
Both normal and cancerous cells produce PSA.
This level should be zero after surgery if all prostate cells have been removed.
Take this test every quarter for two years after surgery and biannually for five years after that.
Beyond this time frame the chances of the cancer recurring decreases but to be on the safe side you can take the test once a year.
PSA is high then the doctor will determine the staging of prostate cancer and in which area of the body the cancer has recurred in and start you again on a course of treatment.
Hormone therapy is indicated if the PSA level rises.
You can defer treatment while watching to see how high the PSA level rises and the doctors will test you every three months.
But if the symptoms of cancer develop then you need to go in for active treatment.
Prostate cancer can return to affect the seminal vesicles or the tissue surrounding the prostate, or the pelvic or outside lymph nodes.
Rectum and the pelvic wall may also be affected.
Follow-up treatment if prostate cancer recurs depends on the:
- Kind of treatment you have already undergone
- Site of the recurrence
- Other infections you may have
- and other factors involving your medical history.
Make sure you monitor your progress even after undergoing the treatment for prostate cancer.
Don’t leave it to chance as the risk is high that it may recur.
Prostate Cancer, Could the Cure Be in Your Multivitamin?
Aside from skin cancer, prostate cancer is the most common form of cancer, and its mortality rate is second only to lung cancer in men.
Surgeries are risky; often resulting in infertility and or impotence, the standard treatments can make the patient sick and at times are ineffective.
The prostate is part of the male reproductive system;
It’s responsible for making up part of the seminal fluid that helps carry sperm from the body as semen during ejaculation.
An average healthy prostate is approximately the size of a walnut.
Exact causes of prostate cancer are unknown, but there are certain risk factors associated with greater chances for developing prostate cancer.
- Person’s age – prostate cancer can occur in younger men but is rare in those under forty-five years of age;
- Race – prostate cancer is more common among African American men than white or Hispanic men;
- Family history and diet – are also potential risk factors in the development of prostate cancer.
Some Common Symptoms Associated With Staging of Prostate Cancer
- Include urinary problems
- Frequent urination at night
- Weak stream of urine
- Painful or burning urination
- Blood in the urine
- Difficulty achieving an erection
- Pain in the lower back, hips and upper legs
Few suggest that nearly every man, provided that he lives long enough, would develop prostate cancer.
Some doctors say not all men die from prostate cancer, but a lot will die with it.
This both illustrates the fact that prostate cancer is not always deadly, or that it doesn’t always pose a situation where death is imminent and the fact that prostate cancer is very common.
At this point the treatments for prostate cancer are essentially the same as for other forms of cancer.
Prostate can be removed if the cancer hasn’t spread to surrounding areas, based on the staging of prostate cancer.
However, this can lead to erectile dysfunction or impotence.
Chemotherapy and radiation are used, but neither holds any kind of guarantee and both of these can make the patient physically ill.
There is no cure for prostate cancer or is there?
Studies have shown that in high concentration ascorbic acid, or simple vitamin c, either kills or does extensive damage to cancer cells in a Petri dish.
Medical tests have been conducted on the effects of orally consumed forms of vitamin c, but the body is quick to expel extra vitamin c through the urine, rendering these tests all but worthless.
To get the levels of ascorbic acid necessary to poison the cancer cells into the body it would have to be administered intravenously base on the staging of prostate cancer.
No formal extensive studies have been conducted to this effect as of yet.
Why modern medicine doesn’t seem very interested in truly exploring this seemingly viable option remains a mystery.
There are however, some clinics and physicians who are willing to give vitamin c a try.
Patients looking to treat whatever form of cancer they are suffering from with ascorbic acid can find places willing to serve them.
Doses of 30 or more grams administered a few times a week.
In some cases have proven very successful for some cancer patients who had little hope or others who were unwilling to put their bodies through the more medically accepted treatments.
Intravenous ascorbic acid treatments generally aren’t covered by insurance.
However, they are affordable and in my opinion a reasonable option for those seeking an alternative therapy.
As with the traditional treatments, the success rate isn’t one hundred percent, but generally the only side effects are positive.
Perhaps if more and more people decide to opt for this natural cure and success rates are recorded, government grants will be allotted for proper testing and we’ll be one step closer to curing not only prostate cancer, but all cancer.
No Matter the Treatment Used, Urinary Dysfunction Is Common with Prostate Cancer
Urinary dysfunction occurs in many men who undergo any of the forms of treatment available for prostate cancer.
Some men only suffer mild irritation that may last a very short period of time, while others suffer with urinary incontinence that may last for years following certain procedures.
Some forms of treatments side effects can be less severe and will usually resolve themselves with little treatment.
The side effects of radiation therapy and cryotherapy can include incontinence, but are more likely to be limited to:
- Some pain during urination
- Increased urge to urinate
- and increased frequency of urination
- staging of prostate cancer
Most cases of incontinence associated with theses forms of treatment can be controlled with medication, and will generally go away within six months to a year after the initial procedure.
The urinary incontinence often associated with a radical prostatectomy, the surgical treatment for prostate cancer, is often much more severe than that of the above mentioned forms of treatment.
Nearly a quarter of all men who undergo a radical prostatectomy report heavy leakage or little to no control over urinary flow.
Some men need to wear protective garments for a period of up to two years or more following the removal of the prostate.
Is There any Drugs Available For This Stage of Prostate Cancer?
There are a few popular prescription drugs available to aid with some of the lesser side effects of radiation and localized tumor treatment.
Flomax will improve the urinary flow, and when taken for several weeks will help control the side effects until the urinary system is properly functioning on its own again.
Patient is gradually weaned from the drugs as the symptoms lessen.
More aggressive ways of treatment may be necessary to alleviate the urinary incontinence associated with the surgical treatment of prostate cancer.
Collagen injections into the urethra and surgical procedures involving a sling made of silicone inserted under the urethra can drastically reduce the severity of the urinary incontinence.
In some cases stop it all together for a period of time, but neither one is very long term.
The effects of the collagen last only a matter of a few months, and the effects of the surgically implanted sling begin diminishing after a year or two, with very few patients reporting no symptoms after a four year period.